I disagree that rich Americans don't pay their fair share of taxes. On an annual income of slightly more than $300,000 a year, a family will pay well over $80,000 in state and federal income taxes. Meanwhile families earning poverty level wages may be eligible for an earned income tax credit, meaning they get more money back from the tax system than they paid in.
Income tax cuts have been proven to work well in spurring the economy. Cutting the capital gains tax has also worked well. Increasing the value of an individual worker's contribution to the workplace will translate into higher wages for that worker.
Placing an increased cultural value on education, training and work ethic is most of the answer to maintain and increase the number of middle and upper income wage earners and tax payers. Redistribution of wealth from rich to poor utilizing an unbalanced tax system is not the answer.